Dhaka

Dhaka is located in the Hindustan Plain, at the confluence of the Ganges and Brahmaputra, on the Buriganga River, in the middle of Bangladesh. This lowland region of South Asia was formed in the large submontane curve of the Earth's crust, a tectonic sinkhole on the edge of the Deccan Precambrian Platform, filled with river sediments, mainly sand, mules, silt and gravel (it is an alluvial plain). The city grew almost in the middle of a huge jungle, which covered the once fertile lands of the river delta. As Dhaka developed, the forests were cut down, turning them into farmland surrounding the city today. The city is first mentioned as a port center on Burhi Ganga (navigable arm of the Ganges) come from the first millennium CE. W XVII w. (in years 1608-39 i 1660-1704) Dakka became the capital of Bengal in the Mughal Empire and an important center of trade and muslin production. W XVII i XVIII w. the city was one of the world's largest craft and trade centers. Later, its importance decreased in favor of the rapidly developing nearby Calcutta. W 1765 r. Dhaka fell under British control. In years 1805-12 was the capital of British East Bengal and Assam, British India. W 1947 r. the British West Indies ceased to exist. Free Pakistan and India were created in their place, a Dhaka, as part of Pakistan, became the capital of East Bengal, from 1956 r. – Eastern Pakistan, and after its disconnection, w 1971 r. -independent Bangladesh. Dhaka is located in a tropical humid climate zone with a monsoon variety. In summer, the temperature rises to around 25-30 ° C (July average around 29 ° C), but hot days (ponad 40 ° C) nie należą do rzadkości. Zimą temperatura wynosi około 19-20°C. Within a year, Dakka falls 2000-3000 mm of rain, of which approx 2000 mm in the rainy season, which runs from May to October. In the remaining months, rainfall is rare (January average approx 8 mm), but they can be extremely violent. The proximity of the sea and the warm climate make it, that the air humidity in the city can even reach 90%. A distinctive feature of the climate of Bangladesh, including Dhaka, there are catastrophic cyclones, which form on the Bay of Bengal and occur from May to November, sometimes even several times a year. An additional threat to the inhabitants is the dense river network with a very diverse annual flow of water. It flows through the lower Ganges on average 11 480 m3/s, including winter 1500 m3/s, and in the summer even 56 000 m3/s (then the water level may rise even by 10 m). Such a large annual variation is the cause of rapid floods, plus snow melting in spring and summer in the Himalayas. When a flood wave collides with the tide of the sea or a cyclone, there are catastrophic disasters. Larger or smaller floods occur in Bangladesh several times a year.