The natural vegetation of Vietnam is the tropical forests in the south, equatorial in the north and monsoon in the center. They cover approx 40% country area, mainly in the mountains and highlands, as the deltas are practically forestless and used intensively for agriculture. There are only mangroves there (mangrove) in the swampy areas of the Ca Mau peninsula and in the northern part of the coast. The forests of the highlands and the lower part of the mountains, called the jungle, are divided into primary, multi-story, up to 50 m, with noble species of hardwood trees (mahogany, Indochinese rosewood or iron wood), and secondary, lower (do 20 m), with two tiers of crowns and a dense undergrowth of bushes, mostly prickly, and with lianas and epiphytes. Above 1000 m there are forests of the temperate zone with pine trees, cypress, oak and chestnut trees, a above 1800 m – the forests of the mist floor with moss-covered trees. There are also many species of bamboo and woody rhododendrons. In the middle of Vietnam, where the dry season lasts 8-9 months, we meet monsoon forests, shedding leaves during this period, and thickets of tropical maquis and savannah, taking up approx 10-15% total area. More or less 4-5% the territory of the country is overgrown with bamboo thickets, which is versatile. There are characteristic animals: tiger, pantera, Indian elephant, Malay bear, Indian civet and numerous species of monkeys and birds.
Vietnam is one of the most densely populated countries in Asia, however, the distribution of the population is very uneven. Until 75% inhabitants live in the deltas, representing merely 18% country area. The main urban centers are Hanoi and Haiphong in the north, and Hoshimin (former Saigon), the largest city of Vietnam, on the south. The Vietnamese constitute approx 87% the country's population and inhabit mainly deltas and coastal lowlands. There are many national minorities of different language groups in the mountains and in the highlands: Thai (Hand, Thai, When), Vietnamese (Muong), Meoska (Miao, Yao), Khmer and Malay-Indonesian. The Vietnamese in these areas are a minority. Khmer people also live in the Mekong delta, and on the coast of southern Vietnam there are a few Czarnowas (23,8 thousand), heirs of the Czampa state, existing until the end of the 17th century. in the territory of present-day central Vietnam. The Chinese are a special national minority, called Hoa. As an immigrant population, Chinese merchants and craftsmen settled mainly in the southern part of the country, and the main immigration center is Sholon (Cho Can) – Hoshiminu district.
Agriculture is the basis of Vietnam's economy, from which it lives over 70% population. Rice cultivation is of particular importance. The rice paddies take up as much as 85% acreage of arable lands, mainly in the deltas and lowlands. The climate allows for two, and in the southern part three harvests a year. "Green revolution” introduced productive varieties, which, combined with intensive cultivation on family farms, makes it, that Vietnam is 5. manufacturer and 2. rice exporter in the world. Among other crops, maize should be mentioned, cassava and sweet potatoes in the highlands and in the mountains, and vegetables and fruit (bananas, oranges, mango). Sugar cane is also grown, tea, coffee, Cotton, tobacco, jute and peanuts for oil. Mainly pigs are kept, poultry and buffaloes used as traction. Minerals are mainly found in the north of Vietnam, where the coal is mined – anthracite, being the basic energy resource. 75% electricity is generated by combined heat and power plants, the rest – hydroelektrownie (the largest in Tri An). Iron ore is also being mined, tin, wolfram, chromium and bauxites, and apatites and sea salt (by evaporation). The oil and natural gas fields extracted from the sea shelf with the help of Russia are exported due to the country's economic weakness.. The industry is still underdeveloped, industries matter the most: food, textile and clothing.