The Warsaw Basin and Plain are a part of the Middle Mazovian Lowland. The characteristic elements of the sculpture are dunes, boggy depressions and wide, in some places the virgin valley of the Vistula. The southern border of the Warsaw Basin is the extension of the Vistula valley below Warsaw. From the east it is bordered by the Wołomin Plain and the middle Vistula valley. The north-eastern end is the confluence of the middle Vistula valleys, Bug and Narew, and from the north it is surrounded by the Ciechanowska and Płońska uplands. The north-west end is south of Płock. From the west, the valley borders with the Kutnowska and Łowicko-Błońska Plains. The south-west border is the Warsaw Plain, passing from the south into the Kozienice Plain, and in the west it joins Wysoczyzna Rawska and the Łowicz-Błońska Plain. The Warsaw Basin and Plain belong to the Masovian-Podlasie climatic region, where average January temperatures are around -3 ° C, in July around 18 ° C. The Warsaw Basin belongs to the region with a deficit of rainwater. The average annual temperature is around 8 ° C. Precipitation varies within limits 500 mm (with a predominance of summer) and occur for approx 180 The average annual temperature is around 8 ° C. Precipitation varies within limits 500 mm (with a predominance of summer) and occur for approx 180 days of the year. Vistula, sailing through the Warsaw Basin, lowers the water table by about 21 m on the stretch over 100 km. In Warsaw, it is located at an altitude of approx 78 m n.p.m., and in the vicinity of Płock – 57 m n.p.m. The Warsaw Basin has a variable width – from a few kilometers in the vicinity of Płock and Warsaw to over 20 km in the middle. In its northern part, St. 1960 r. Zegrzyńskie Lake was created with an area 33 km2. The navigable Żerański Canal connects them with the Vistula. The lake supplies the right bank of the city with water, it is also a place of rest for the residents of Warsaw and the surrounding area. The main factor determining the features of the soil cover of the Warsaw Basin and Plain are the parent rocks, mainly postglacial sediments (cops, gravel), dune sands and river alluvials. Mady – characteristic soils of river valleys, m.in. Vistula – made of alu-veins deposited by the river during inundations. They are very fertile, because they contain a lot of humus and minerals. Their natural habitat is floodplain. Bielice was formed mainly on the sands of ice-marginal valleys and inland dunes. They are poor in alkaline compounds, and the level of caries is low. They are mainly covered with coniferous forests in clay areas, mainly on the Warsaw Plain, brown and fallow soils were formed. Compared to podzols, they contain more humus and are richer in minerals. Mostly mixed forests grow here.