The vegetation of the Warsaw Basin and Plain is the result of the interaction of all components of the natural environment, of which man had the most significant influence on its present-day appearance and composition. Natural habitats have been severely changed. As settlement develops, forest areas, that once dominated the area, began to shrink. Today they are located on the weakest, mostly sandy soils. Coniferous forests predominate, among which you can distinguish, among others. bory search, usually growing on the slopes of the dunes. Moist forests can be found in shallow depressions, where groundwater is not too deep. Apart from pines and birches, oaks grow in this community. The undercoat and fleece are quite poor in terms of species (junipers, hazel, blueberry, heathers, mchy). Mixed forests (pine with an admixture of birch, maple, linden trees) they require more fertile soils than the forests, formed on sands with admixtures of clay; they also have richer fleece and undercoat (m.in. hazel, mountain ash, maliny i orlica). By the end of the 17th century. there were vast forest areas in the vicinity of Warsaw. The intensive development of the city led to the transformation of the natural environment. Today, little remains of the old forests, and these areas are the most valuable parts of Mazovia's protected areas. Kampinos National Park with an area of 38 544 ha is the second largest national park in Poland. The only complexes of wooded inland dunes in Europe are protected here, diversified by vast strips of swamps and peat bogs. The park grows, among others. about 60 tree species (pine, oak, birch, alder, lipa, clone), 70 shrub species, 120 species of mosses, 150 lichen species and numerous grasses. Unusual plants are, among others. mountain ring and the salty environment of the seaside sorrel. Thanks to the creation of strict reserves, the Kampinos National Park has become a sanctuary for many animals. So far, the occurrence of approx 3000 their species. WITH 50 species of mammals living in the park, the moose deserves the most attention. It was already exterminated in the 18th century. W 1951 r. brought to the park 5 individuals, which were placed in special pens. The animals acclimated and multiplied. Gradually, they were released. You can also meet deer, wild, deer, kuny, foxes and lynxes (brought from zoos and released into the wild after acclimatization in 1994 r.). The water reservoirs are inhabited by otters and beavers (brought in 1980 r.). The park is also a mainstay for 200 bird species, m.in. crane's, black storks, lesser spotted eagles, gray herons, derkaczy i bielików. Pobyt w Kotlinie i na Równinie Warszawskiej uatrakcyjnia piękno krajobrazu. Picturesquely scattered, The dunes covered with pine forests contrast with small lakes and peat bogs. The Vistula is a real ornament – regulated in some places, in others it spills uncontrollably. You can see all the richness of nature, using the hiking trails. It is in the Kampinos National Park itself 350 km of hiking trails and 200 km cycling. In Żelazowa Wola, close to Warsaw, Frederic Chopin was born. Today, the manor houses the composer's museum. Historic churches can be seen in Brochów, Kampinos, Leszno, and the old mansions in Lipków, Kampinos and Tułowice. Konstancin health resort is situated by Jeziorka, and on the slope of the Vistula valley, in the south of the Warsaw Plain, Czersk with the ruins of the castle of Masovian dukes.