Ludy Uralu. Nomadic Peoples and Reindeer Breeders.
The most inaccessible, the northern regions of the Urals are inhabited by nomadic peoples – mainly Korni and Nenets, dealing with reindeer breeding. In summer, they wander in Ural pastures, and for the winter they return to Asia through the mountains. They live in large tents with an opening at the top. There is a stove in the center, and all around are reindeer skins. Usually there are approx 20 people. A popular means of transport is a reindeer sledge. You can move them both on snow, and on the grass. The everyday life of the inhabitants of the northern regions of the Urals has hardly changed for years.
The Urals are known as a multinational region with a rich culture based on ancient traditions. Not only Russians live here (who began to actively populate the Urals from the 17th century), but also the Bashkirs, Tatars, Come on, Mansi, Nieniec, Big, You are awake, Mordowian and others.
The appearance of a man in the Urals
The first man appeared in the Urals around 100 thousand years ago. Possible, that it happened before, but so far there are no finds relating to an earlier period at the disposal of scientists. The oldest Palaeolithic site of primitive man was discovered in the area of Lake Karabalykty, near the village of Tashbulatovo, Abzelilovsky district in the Republic of Bashkiria .
Archaeologists O.N. Bader i V.A. Oborin – famous researchers of the Urals – they argue, that ordinary Neanderthals were Great Prauralians. Found, that people moved to this territory from Central Asia. For example, in Uzbekistan, the entire skeleton of a Neanderthal was found, whose life expectancy falls on the first development of the Urals. Anthropologists recreated the appearance of the Neanderthal, which was adopted as the appearance of the Uralian in the period of the settlement of this territory.
The ancient people could not survive alone. They were in danger at every turn, and the capricious nature of the Urals from time to time gave expression to its stubborn disposition. Only mutual help and mutual care helped the primitive man to survive. The main activity of the tribes was to search for food, so absolutely everyone was involved, including children. Hunting, fishing, gathering are the main ways of getting food.
Successful hunting meant a lot to the entire tribe, so people tried to calm nature with complicated rituals. Ceremonies were held in front of the image of some animals. This is evidenced by the preserved rock paintings, including a unique monument – Kapova cave (Shulgan-Tash) , located on the banks of the Belaya River (Agidel) in the Burzyan region of Bashkiria.
Inside, the cave looks like an amazing palace with huge halls, which are connected by wide corridors. The total length of the first floor is 290 m. The second floor is located 20 m above the first and extends to 500 m in length. The corridors lead to the mountain lake.
It is on the walls of the second floor that unique drawings of a primitive man have been preserved, created with the help of ocher. It presents figures of mammoths, horses and rhinoceros. The photos show, that the artist saw all this fauna in the immediate vicinity.
Indigenous people of the Urals
The original Uralian – Who is he? For example, the Bashkirs, Tatars and Mari have lived in this region for only a few centuries. However, even before the arrival of these peoples, the land was inhabited. One of the indigenous peoples was the Mansi, which before the revolution were called Voguls. On the map of the Urals, and now you can find rivers and settlements called "Vogulka". They come from the Judinsky archaeological culture, named after the settlement of Judinsky. The monuments of the Yudin culture of the 10th-13th centuries are known in the Trans-Ural forest along the Tura rivers, Tavda, Lozva and their tributaries. In the northern part, the Khanty culture influenced the population, and in the southern part – on the Siberian Tatars.
Mansi belong to the people of the Finno-Ugric language group. Their dialect is related to Khanty (Ostyaks) and Hungary. In ancient times, these people lived in the territory north of the Yaik River (Ural) , but later it was ousted by militant nomadic tribes. Vogulov even mentioned Nestor in his "Tales of Bygone Years", in which they call them "Ugra".
The Voguls actively resisted Russian expansion. The places of active resistance were suppressed in the 17th century. Along with this came the Christianization of the Voguls. The first baptism took place in 1714 r., Second v 1732 r., And later in 1751 r.
After the conquest of the indigenous people of the Urals, the Mansi were obliged to pay a tax – forbidden – according to the Cabinet of His Imperial Majesty. They had to pay one yasaka to two foxes, for which they were allowed to use farmland and hay, and also forests. They were exempt from conscription until 1874 year. From 1835 r. They had to pay the poll tax, and then fill the earthly ones.
The Voguls were divided into nomadic and sedentary tribes. The former had canonical plagues in the summer, and they spent the winter in huts or in yurts with a fireplace equipped there. The settlers built rectangular log huts with an earthen floor and a flat roof covered with chopped logs and birch bark.
The Mansi main occupation was hunting. They mainly lived off of it, which was obtained with bows and arrows. The most desired prey was the moose, Leather, from which national clothes were sewn. The Voguls tried their hand at cattle breeding, but they practically did not know the tillage. When the owners of the factories became the new owners of the Urals, indigenous people had to engage in the extraction and burning of coal.
A hunting dog played an important role in the life of every wogul, without which, like without an ax, no man would leave the house. Forced conversion to Christianity did not force this people to abandon ancient pagan rituals. The idols were placed in secluded places, sacrifices were still made to them.
Mansi is a small people, which includes 5 isolated groups depending on their environment: Verkhoturskaya (Lozvinskaya), Cherdynskaya ( Visherskaya ), Kungurskaya (Chusovskaya), Krasnoufimskaya (Klenovsko-Bisertskaya), Binding.
With the arrival of the Russians, the Voguls largely adopted their customs and habits. Mixed marriages began to form. Living in the villages with the Russians did not prevent the Voguls from keeping their former activities, such as hunting.
Today, Mansi remains less and less. At the same time, according to old traditions, only a few dozen people live. Young people are looking for a better life and they don't even know the language. In search of earnings, young Mansi tries to leave for the Khanty-Mansiysk district, to get an education and earn money.
Come on (zyryans)
This people lived in the taiga zone of the Northern Urals. It comes from the archaeological culture in Vymsk. They belong to the Finno-Ugric language group. The main activity was hunting fur animals and fishing, they were also involved in agriculture and cattle breeding. Zyryan first appears in a scroll that dates back to the 11th century. Beginning in the 13th century, the tribes were obliged to pay Jasak Novgorod. W 1478 year, the territory of Komi became part of Russia. The capital of the Republic of Komi – Syktyvkar – was founded in 1586 years as Ust-Sysolska.
Permski komi, living in the territory of Perm , appeared at the end of the first millennium. The ancestors of the Permian Komi came from the archaeological culture of Rodanov (created on the basis of the Lomovatov culture), Which was named after the Rodanov settlement in the Upper Kama region. Along the Kama River and its tributaries it is known over 300 cultural monuments of Rodanów from the 9th-15th centuries. According to historians, their number was at least 4,5 thousand. people. The territory inhabited by the population coincided with the borders of the Great Perm. Komi-Perms belong to the Finno-Ugric language group.
Settlements (sediments and sediments) they stood on the banks of the rivers, they lived in wooden houses. They cultivated the land. From the 12th century, Novgorod entered this territory, dealing with the exchange and trade of furs. In the 15th century, the Perms created their own principality, which was soon attached to Moscow.
There are two distinct groups of comi-perms – Yazvinskaya (was established as a result of the resettlement from Kolva in the 12th-13th centuries ) i Verkhnekamsk – Zyuzdinskaya.
In the course of Russian colonization, the Permian Komi moved to a more compact territory along the Kos and Inva rivers and their tributaries. The main core of this people is preserved here and now.
Small indigenous people from the Perm Territory. They live in their historical homeland in the upper Yazva (Krasnovishersky district of the Perm region). They still speak a special dialect of the Komi language. Komi-Yazva are descendants of the Komi ethnic community, which in the pre-Russian period of the history of the Urals occupied the meeting point of Visher, Flask, Yazva, Glukha Vilva and Borova.
Bashkirs are mentioned in chronicles starting from the 10th century. The ancestors of the Bashkirs arose in the steppes of the Aral Sea region and the neighboring regions of Central Asia, and then migrated to the steppes and forest steppes of the Southern Urals. The formation of the modern Bashkir people (with their names "Badzhgard", "Together") began in the Urals in the IX-X centuries, when they settled on both slopes of the Urals : along the Belaya rivers , Ai , Yuryuzan, Ufa , Dema, Sakmara, Big I. . , Menzel, Ural, Uy, Miass . They were engaged in breeding nomadic cattle, fishing, hunting, beekeeping. Southern Bashkirs wandered, they lived in yurts, they ate meat and milk. Northern Bashkirs were engaged in pastoralism and hunting.
In the 10th century, they joined the Volga and Bulgaria, and in the same period, Islam penetrated there. W 1229 Bashkiria was attacked by the Mongol Tatars. W 1236 year this area became the legacy of brother Khan Baty. When the Golden Horde broke up, one part of Bashkiria went to the Nogai Horde, another to the Kazan Khanate, and the third to the Siberian Khanate. In the 11th-15th centuries, new masses of the Turkish-speaking population joined the Bashkirs. W 1557 year Bashkiria became part of Russia. The Bashkirs were the most numerous non-Russian peoples of the Urals.
In the 17th century, Russians began to actively come to Bashkiria, among whom were peasants, artisans and merchants. The Bashkirs began to lead a sedentary lifestyle. The annexation of the Bashkir lands to Russia caused repeated uprisings of the indigenous people. In years 1704-11, 1735-37, 1738-39, 1740 great Bashkir riots broke out in the Urals. The Bashkirs attacked villages and settlements, they burned down houses and destroyed factories. The centers of resistance were brutally suppressed by the tsarist army each time. The Bashkirs took an active part in the Pugachev uprising (1773-1775). It was during this period that the national hero of Bashkiria became famous, Salavat Yulaev . As a punishment for the Yaik Cossacks, who took part in the riots, the Yaik river was named the Urals.
The development of these places significantly accelerated with the appearance of the Samara-Zlatoust railway line, which was built in the years 1885-1890 and ran through the central regions of Russia. An important moment in the history of Bashkiria was the opening of the first oil well, thanks to which the republic became one of the largest oil regions in Russia. The powerful economic potential of Bashkiria received in 1941 r., When moved here from western Russia over 90 large enterprises. The capital of Bashkiria is the city of Ufa .
Big (Big) or Cheremis is a Finno-Ugric people. He settled in Bashkiria, Tatarstanie, Udmurtia. There are Marian villages in the Sverdlovsk region . It was established as an ethnic community in the second half of the first millennium AD. The neighboring tribes of Udmurts and Mordovians played a large role in the ethnogenesis of this people. After the defeat of the Volga Bulgaria by the Mongol Tatars, Mari began to move northeast, pushing the Udmurts back into the headwaters of the Vyatka River.
They were first mentioned in the 6th century by the Gothic historian Jordan under the name "oremiscano". Tatars called this people "Czeremys", which meant "obstacle". Before the beginning of the revolution in 1917 Mari years were usually called cheremis or cheremis, but then this word was found offensive and removed from use.
The formation of the ancient Udmurts occurred as a result of the mixing of the Finno-Perm and Ugric peoples in the 9th century AD. The ancestors of the Udmurts formed in the tributary of the Volga and Kama rivers. They formed two large groups: south (lives on the right bank of the lower reaches of the Kama River and the tributaries of the Vyatka – The valley and Kilmezi) and the north (arose as a result of resettlement to Wiatka, Czeptsy and Górna Kama after the Mongol Tatar invasion in the 13th century). The main city of the Udmurts was reportedly Idnakar – fortified craft center, commercial and administrative.
The ancestors of the northern Udmurts were representatives of the czepeta culture of the 9th-15th centuries, and the southern Udmurts – kultur Chumoitlinsky i Kochergin. According to historians, until the 16th century the number of Udmurts did not exceed 3,5-4 thousand. People.
Descendants of baptized Cossack Tatars live in Nagaybak district in the Chelyabinsk region, who were given the name Nagaybaks. They are considered descendants of the Nogai Tatars, who, after the conquest of the Kazan Khanate by Ivan IV, did not leave the middle Volga region. There were three groups in the Nagaybaks province of Orenburg, but currently only two groups retain their identities. It is most numerous in the Nagaybaksky district of the Chelyabinsk region (about 10 thousand people). Nagaybaki have the status of a small indigenous population.
Contemporary nagajaki remember their ancestors, who were the first to enter Paris during World War II. For this they were given land, on which they founded, among others, Paris village. There are also other European toponyms in this part of the Chelyabinsk region in the Nagajbaki lands: Kassel, Ostrolenka, Fershampenoise, Trebia I innc. These names appeared at the suggestion of the Governor-General of Orenburg.
Tatars are the second largest population of the Urals (after the Russians). Most Tatars live in Bashkiria (about 1 million). There are many completely Tatar villages in the Urals. In the 18th century, significant migrations of Tatars from the Volga to the Urals were observed.
Culture of the Ural peoples
The culture of the Ural peoples is quite unique and characteristic. Until the Urals were transferred to Russia, many local peoples did not have their own written language. Nevertheless, over time, these same peoples knew more than just their own language, but also the Russian language.
The amazing legends of the Ural peoples are full of bright ones, mysterious stories. As a rule, the action is associated with caves and mountains, various treasures.
It is impossible not to mention the incomparable skill and imagination of folk craftsmen. Crafts made of Ural minerals are widely known. They can be seen in leading museums in Russia.
The region is famous for its wood and bone carvings. Wooden roofs of traditional houses, laid without the use of nails, are decorated with carved "skates" or "chickens". It is customary among Komi to place wooden bird figurines on separate poles near the house. There is such a thing as "Permian Animal Style". What are the ancient figurines of mythical creatures, cast in bronze, found during excavations?
The casting for Kasla is also famous. These are cast iron creations, astonishing in its sophistication. Craftsmen created beautiful candelabra, figurines, sculptures and jewelry. This direction has gained recognition on the European market.
A strong tradition is the will to have a family and love for children. For example, the Bashkirs, like other peoples of the Urals, they respect their elders, therefore the main members of the family are grandparents. Descendants know the names of the ancestors of seven generations by heart.