The Nile crosses the central and north-eastern part of Africa. His run, though winding, takes the general meridional direction. The river holds a world record for length: from sources in equatorial Africa to the estuary in the Mediterranean Sea counts 6671 km. It flows in both hemispheres – the source is at 30 ° S., and the estuary – above 31 ° N. In its journey to the sea, it flows through Burundi, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda, Sudan and Egypt. The basin area is almost 2,9 million km2 and in size second only to the Congo Basin in Africa.

Discovering the Nile

The ancient Egyptians' interest in the river was concentrated around the delta and valley of the lower Nile. They reached the vicinity of present-day Khartoum as farthest upstream. The first attempt to find the sources was made in Nero's time in 54-68 r. neither., but little is known about this. Only in the 19th century. abounded in expeditions of European travelers, which contributed to deepening the knowledge of the river and the areas around it. The first foreigners, who reached the vicinity of Lake Victoria and discovered the Ripon Falls, byli Richard Burton i John Speke. They planned their trip from Lake Tanganyika, contrary to what has been done so far – from its mouth upstream. The expedition resulted in a hypothesis, that the Nile flows out of Lake Victoria. The next great traveler to travel the continent was David Livingstone, who discovered Lualaba, the actual beginning of the Congo, mistakenly considering it to be the beginning of the Nile. The source was located by Henry Morton Stanley. He found Kagera through careful research around Lake Victoria. Among Polish travelers, the botanist Leon Cienkowski should be mentioned, who, on the occasion of his trip to Egypt, St. 1847 r. reached the headwaters of the White Nile.