The source river of the Nile is the Kagera, formed from a combination of rivers flowing from the areas south of Lake Kiwu: Nyawarongu, having its source in Rwanda, and Ruvuvu starting in Burundi. After defeating 400 km it flows into Lake Victoria and as the Victoria Nile it flows out in the northern part of the reservoir. In the vicinity of Jinja, it comes across a crystalline substrate, where it creates several meters high Ripon and Owen Falls. It then flows through a much smaller one, Kioga muddy lake, behind which it encounters a fault threshold. It breaks through the picturesque Murchison Falls and falls as the Victoria Nile to the bottom of the Great Rift Valley, where it flows through the northern part of Lake Alberta. Flowing out of it, it is called the Albert Nile. It then leaves the African Highlands and heads north.
In the valleys
Nil Alberta, reaching the vast East Sudan Basin, known as the Upper Nile Basin, changes its name to the Górski Nile (Bahr al-Jabal). In this section, it is navigable even for larger ships. Between 7 and 9 ° N flows into the Sudd floodwaters, which in Arabic means "embolism”. The name comes from a large amount of aquatic vegetation, which creates natural dams, greatly restricting the free movement of both water, and ships. In this area, the largest left-bank tributary of the Bahr al-Ghazal joins the Mountain Nile, and the river turns sharply east. After receiving a right-bank tributary near the town of Malakal, the Sobat returns to its original direction and already as the White Nile (Al-Bahr al-Abyad) it flows in a flat and dry basin.
At Khartoum it joins the Blue Nile (Al-Bahr al-Azraq), the longest and most abundant in water tributary, which gives character to the whole river. The Blue Nile flows from Lake Tana in the Abyssinian Plateau. It has a mountain character, carries significant amounts of water and mud slurries during the summer season. Below the mouth of the Blue Nile, the river flows as the Nile to its mouth. It enters the Bajuda upland area, separating the Upper and Lower Nile Basins. It takes a characteristic shape resembling a giant letter "S."”. In place of, in which it encounters rock outcrops of the Saharan Shield in the ground, creates cataracts. There are six of them in this episode, in Roman numerals ascending upstream. They are navigable only when the water level is very high. The last major tributary of the Nile is the Atbara flowing from the Abyssinian Highlands. In the further course, the longest river in the world runs over it alone 2500 km through the desert zone of the Sahara. It flows between the sands of the Libyan Desert to the west and the Nubian and Arabian Desert to the east. Below the 3rd cataract, there is an artificial reservoir of length 500 km – Nassera Lake. It was created as a result of damming the water level with the Great Aswan Dam. Valley, in which the Nile bed is located, in its middle course it is narrow and deeply cut into soft sedimentary rocks. It widens in the lower reaches, and at the exit to the Mediterranean Sea, it forms a large delta.