Geology of Slovakia
The mountains of Slovakia belong mainly to the Western Carpathians (only in a small section to the East), and the lowlands are part of the Pannonian Plate.
The Carpathians are young mountains, which rose in Alpine orogeny, mainly composed of crystalline rocks. In later periods, they underwent secondary transformations, obtaining in places coats of limestone or flysch. Part of the Slovak mountains are extinct volcanoes. Crystalline rocks of the Ore Mountains, Great Faith and the Tatra Mountains are rich in metal ores, limestone formations of Mala Fatra, Low Tatras and Little Carpathians – in karst forms, and volcanic andesites and rhiolites in the Szczawnickie and Kremnickie Mountains into lead-zinc-silver veins, copper, golden and antimony. Sandstone-clay flyches of the Western Beskids or the White Carpathians are poor in natural resources.
Vast karst lands, taking up approx. 3 thousand. km2, are unique in Slovakia. Through the middle of the country, from Myjava by Żylina to Humenne, there is a belt of uplift built by limestone, formed at the meeting point of flysch and crystalline rock formations. Their undoubted advantage is the abundant karst forms: caves, valleys, canyons etc.. The Slovak Karst runs through the south-eastern part of the country (with the Aggtelek-Baradla caves).
The country is characterized by mineral and thermal springs (ok. 1,3 thousand). The largest concentrations of the former are in the vicinity of Liptovsky Mikulas, the second – on the Lower Danube.