Baghdad is not only the most important administrative unit of Iraq, but also a large industrial center, crafts, trade, science and culture. The tiger flows through the city, one of the main rivers of Asia, which makes a great curve here, meandering strongly at the same time. Baghdad lies on both shores. The waters of the Tigris are salutary not only for the capital city, but also for the whole of Iraq. This large river, however, carries the risk of flooding large areas during a flood. Thanks to the channel system, whose task is, among others. water flow regulation, Baghdad is not in danger. In the past, however, there were cataclysms. From its inception to years 50. XX w. the city has haunted 30 catastrophic flooding. The most serious in 1881 r. destroyed 7000 buildings.
Iraq is located within the tropical continental climate zone, which is characterized by a very small sum of annual rainfall and high temperature fluctuations, both during the day, and the whole year. The annual temperature range in Baghdad exceeds 30 ° C. The average January temperature is 9.5 ° C, in July it reaches 34 ° C; the maximum so far recorded in the city has exceeded 50 ° C. The hot climate is mitigated by the winds blowing mainly from the northwest. They are common on very hot days. At night, temperatures drop significantly, giving the opportunity to rest from the all-day heat. In Baghdad there are over 3400 hours of sunshine throughout the year. Cloud cover is minimal, and in the summer there are long cloudless periods. The annual rainfall is only 150 mm, mainly from December to April. The average air humidity during the year is approx 35%.
Baghdad's history is long and turbulent. City in 762 r. he founded the second Abbasid caliph, Al-Mansour. He decided to move the capital built by his predecessor in Anbar on the Euphrates to a more centrally located place. The choice fell on the vicinity of a small village called Baghdad, located on the west bank of the Tigris. Al-Mansour brought many architects here, artisans and laborers from all over the Islamic empire. The city plan was based on the shape of a circle, that is why they were called the "circular city”. At that time, three lines of walls were built. Two of them, a moat and earth embankments formed the outer ring of fortifications. Within the third, inside lane, there was a palace of the Golden Gate, who was the residence of the caliph, and also a great mosque. The residential district stretched out in the zwinger zone. From Baghdad, four main gates led to the four main provinces of the Abbasid Empire. Soon many merchants started to come to the city, so there was a need for expansion. The district of Kerkh was then established, which is located in the south, near the Basra gate, and a district on the eastern bank of the Tigris.