The peak of development was at the turn of the 8th and 9th centuries. Baghdad was then the focal point on the trade routes between East and West. Many impressive buildings and magnificent gardens have made him the richest and most beautiful city in the world. In later years, his position weakened significantly, for some time it even lost its function of the capital. W 1258 r. Baghdad, along with the entire Abbasid Empire, was plundered by the Mongol hordes. Re-invasion of the Mongols at the end of the 14th century. it also ended with a cruel slaughter of the population and the burning of the city. It soon became the scene of a dispute between Persia and the Ottoman Turks. Eventually, Persia mastered them, what in 2 mid-17th century. resulted in expansion. Many monuments have been restored to their former glory. W XIX w. the city found itself in the sphere of British influence. This went on until 1932 r., when Iraq became an independent state with Baghdad as its capital.
Most of the sights worth seeing are located in the center of Baghdad, although in other parts of the city and in its vicinity you can also find interesting places. One of the most important monuments is from the 13th century. two-story building of the madrassa Al-Mustansirjja, the most magnificent building from the reign of the Abbasid dynasty. It is arranged in the shape of a rectangle. From 1227 r. do 1533 r. it was one of the most respected Islamic universities. Inside is a huge open courtyard. There were lecture halls here, library, hospital and other premises necessary for the functioning of the university. In its heyday, the building was equipped with a sewage system and a water clock. After Iraq regained independence, the madrassa was restored and created a museum here. The ornaments adorning the facade are especially worth seeing. Another interesting building is the Khan Marjan caravanserai. The building served as a stopping point for merchants wandering along the trade route through Baghdad. Currently, it houses the Museum of Arab Antiquities. The Marjan Mosque is also nearby 1356 r. Even though it was partially demolished, you can admire the wonderful ornaments.