The Andes mountain ranges have an average height of approx. 3560 m, and many peaks even exceed 6000 m n.p.m. There are two parallel chains in Peru and Bolivia, Atiplano lies between, vast plateau. The first city-states and empires grew between the mountains and the sea. Neither of them has any written testimonies, no wonder then, that their story is shrouded in mystery.
The tribe of the Nazca plateau on the southern coast of Peru created something in the barren plain, what has been called the greatest work of art in the world. Stones were removed in arduous labor, revealing the whitish soil beneath them, in this way, that lines and patterns were formed on the surface. Some straight lines have over 8 km long. There are also geometric figures and images of birds, fish, spiders and monkeys. This work must have been created for many years, and nobody knows, what purpose it served.
In Chanchan, however, there are ruins of the capital of the Chimu empire. At the beginning of the 15th century. was the largest city in the world, built of bricks dried in the sun, full of temples, palaces, tombs and gardens. Before the Spanish invasion, the Chim were conquered by the Incas, who from their capital city of Cusco ruled the greatest empire in the Americas. His strength was: professional army, efficient administration and road system which still arouses admiration today.
In the Peruvian Andes, On the height 2700 m n.p.m. there is a former place of sun worship on the mountain pass between the two peaks, the ground, water and hose. All, what gave life and had the power to change nature bore the marks of divinity. This place is called Machu Picchu – "Old Mountain". These are the ruins of the former, over 2 hectares, cities. The walls of the building are made of large granite blocks, connected to each other without the use of mortar. Huge blocks of stone with carefully smoothed edges have been laid here, that they fit together almost perfectly.
In years 900-200 before nar. Christ, the Chavin culture has spread throughout most of what is now Peru. In the first half of the first millennium after. Christ followed the development of the Machica and Nazca cultures, and in years 600-1000 the Huan and Tiahuanaco empires were established. Od XIV w. there was an expansion of the Chimu state, conquered in 1475 r. by the Incas.
W XV w. this great empire was in a state of civil war, which made it easier for the Spaniards to conquer their country. On the ruins of the Inca state, the Spaniards founded a viceroyalty, which survived until the beginning of the 19th century. During this period, Peru was the main center of the Spanish colonies in South America, and Lima the capital of the viceroyship.
W 1810 r. aspirations for independence were revealed there, but only in 1821 r. the country's independence was proclaimed, established in 1824 r. by the victorious battle of Ayacucho.