Warsaw - a tourist center, Capital, situated on both banks of the Vistula; is the administrative center, the seat of the highest state authorities (ministries and central offices), cultural (great theater, National Philharmonic, numerous theaters, cinemas and museums, m.in. The National Museum and the Polish Army Museum), scientific (the seat of the Polish Academy of Sciences, universities, scientific institutes, research facilities, etc.) and industrial.
W X w. on the right bank of the Vistula there was a stronghold in Stary Bródno, a w XII w. the market village of Solec was established on the left bank. Warsaw was located under the Chełmno law at the beginning of the 14th century.
We find a mention of Warsaw in the files of the trial, which took place in 1339 r. between Casimir the Great and the Teutonic Order for Polish lands unlawfully appropriated by the Order. Behind the walls of the Old Town, it was established in the 15th century. New town.
Due to its convenient location on the route of important trade routes, leading from west to east and from north to south, and good direct communication along the Vistula to Gdańsk, there was a rapid development of the city as an important center of trade and crafts.
Initially, Warsaw was the capital of Mazovia. From 1596 r. - after Sigismund III moved the capital of Poland from Krakow to Warsaw - the expansion of the city surrounded by the Sigismund embankment dates (bastion fortification). Warsaw has also become an administrative center, political and cultural life of the country. W 1655—1657 r. the war with the Swedes inhibited the development of the city for some time. W 1648 r. on the right bank of the Vistula, the city of Prague was established opposite Warsaw.
The planned expansion of Warsaw began during the reign of the Saxons. W 1770 r. the city was girded with ramparts. During the long reign of King Stanisław A.. Poniatowski (1764—1795) magnates and financiers built many beautiful palaces and buildings.
The king was the main patron of the development of art, which was built by the Łazienki Palace, full of elegance and refinement. At the same time, the urban economy was put in order, new streets and squares were built, lighting was assumed, the seeds of industry were being created (manufactories, brickyards, mills, breweries).
Warsaw has also become a major research center. W 1816 r. University of Warsaw was established. The Society of Friends of Sciences developed lively activity.
At the end of the last century, industry began to develop intensively.
New districts were built in the interwar period, like for example. Saska Kępa, Mokotów, Żoliborz.
War in 1939 r., years of terror and mass executions, destruction of the Jewish population (rising in the ghetto in 1943 r.), and the Warsaw Uprising in August 1944 r., after suppressing which the Nazis completely burned down and destroyed the city - they gave a gloomy balance.
In the period from September 1939 r. by the end of the war, approx. 800 thousand people. To commemorate the heroes of Warsaw from those years, in day 20 VII 1964 r. a symbolic monument called the Warsaw Nike monument was unveiled. Moreover, it was destroyed 84% buildings and the vast majority of historical monuments, churches, library, theaters, hospitals and various types of service and cultural facilities.
This should be borne in mind when watching Warsaw today. This will allow you to better understand and become aware of it, how much work has gone into the reconstruction and expansion of the city since its liberation (17 1 1945 r.).
The pace and momentum in the reconstruction and expansion of Warsaw characterize the "Warsaw” July holidays, in which completed buildings were handed over to the city, e.g.: Poniatowski Bridge (1946 r.), Route W-Z (1949 r.), Marszałkowska Residential District with Konstytucji Square (1952 r.), Old town square (1953 r.), Pałac Kultury i Nauki (1955 r.), Łazienkowska Route (1975 r.) and the Central Station (1976 r.).
Many new housing estates have been built, equipped with shops, workshops, nurseries, before school, primary schools, health centers, cinemas and a whole range of necessary service facilities.
Many objects were rebuilt or reconstructed, appropriate forms of care for the monuments were provided, getting to know them was made easier for the public, Moreover, the places of execution and fights were commemorated. The Royal Castle was rebuilt.