Since the establishment of the Vietnamese state in the 3rd century. p.n.e. until the mid-10th century. the country was politically dependent on China, only temporarily regaining sovereignty. In the following centuries, it fought off numerous Chinese and Mongolian invasions, until finally victory over the combined fleet of these countries in 1290 r. gave the possibility of free development and expansion to the south by conquering the kingdom of Czarnów (1693 r.). The last conflict with China took place in the years 1978-79 and was a consequence of the Vietnamese intervention in Cambodia. It led to the overthrow of the Pol Pot regime, backed by the PRC. From 1992 r. there has been an improvement in relations with the northern neighbor. Vietnam also adopted the Chinese model of economic openness to the world while maintaining the dominant role of the communist party.
Authority of France
From the mid-nineteenth century. The French were interested in Vietnam, who as a result of the war in 1852-62 they took the south of the country, and in years 1883-84 they extended their protectorate to the rest of it. During World War II, Vietnam was occupied by the Japanese. After the defeat of Japan, the leader of the Vietnamese communists Hoszimin proclaimed 2 IX 1945 r. the establishment of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam. This resulted in another intervention by France, ended with the defeat at Dien Bien Phu in 1954 r. Under the Geneva Agreements, Vietnam was temporarily divided along the Ben Hai River into two parts, which, after democratic elections, were to be merged into a single state. However, contrary to what was agreed, the communists took power in the north, and in the south – army.
Another war broke out in 1965 r., when the US supporting South Vietnam began bombing the Democratic Republic of Vietnam and intervened against communist guerrillas in the south of the country. As a result of enormous losses and pressure from public opinion, the Americans stopped in 1973 r. bombing and after signing the Paris Accords they withdrew from the conflict. W 1976 r. Vietnam was reunified under the leadership of the Hanoi authorities.
After gaining full power, the communists nationalized the economy and reformed the land. However, the enormity of losses caused by the war and the collapse of the communist bloc in the 1989-91 resulted in a departure from the preferred model of centrally controlled economy. Market reforms have started: privatization of trade and small manufacturing, restoring family farms, a w 1992 r. based on the Chinese model of joint-venture with foreign capital. Relations with the PRC have also been normalized (1992 r.) and the United States (1994 r.). The changes bring visible results. The Vietnamese switched from bicycles to scooters and motorcycles, and they gain funds more and more often, working abroad, also in Poland, mainly in trade and gastronomy.