China

China is divided into 22 provinces, 6 autonomous regions and 3 separated cities – Pekin, Shanghai and Tianjin. Taiwan is formally part of the country, which is in fact an independent state. 1 VII 1997 r. Hong Kong returned to Chinese administration. The former British property has retained the current economic system, social and legal as well as internal autonomy for the next ones 50 years. 20 J. 1999 r. China recaptured Macau, the former overseas province of Portugal (Chinese Aomen). Najwcześniejsze organizacje państwowości na terenie Chin powstały prawdopodobnie już w trzecim tysiącleciu p.n.e. Do HI w. p.n.e. kraj był rozbity na wiele zwalczających się państewek. Jednolite państwo powstało w 221 r. p.n.e., during the reign of the Qin dynasty. The construction of the Great Wall of China began then, which was to act as a defense system against the Hun invasions. Emperor Shi of the Han Dynasty by 16 years he built 6000 km of the wall, by hiring 700 thousand. people. During the reign of this dynasty (206 r. p.n.e – 220 r. neither.) also launched the Silk Road, which allowed for economic and cultural exchange between East and West, a w czasach dynastii Tang (618-907) was the largest trade route in the world. The times of the Ming dynasty (1368-1644) it is a period of economic and political stabilization after the rule of the Mongol dynasty. Many churches and palaces were built at that time, and Chinese art has reached its peak of development. Lords of the next dynasty, Qing (Cing, 1644-1911), led to the economic decline of the country. After losing the opium wars (1839-42, 1856-58, 1859-60) China lost Hong Kong, and at the end of the 19th century. stały się jednym z najbiedniejszych państw świata. Największym nizinnym obszarem kraju jest Nizina Mandżurska o powierzchni 350 000 km2, located in the northeast of China in the Sungari and Liao-ho basins on the Liaoty Bay. Big Chingan is surrounded by mountains, Little Chingan and East Manchurian to the south connect to the China Plain in the Huang-ho lower reaches of the Yellow Sea. Dalej ku południowi Nizina Chińska przechodzi w Nizinę Jangcy ograniczoną od południowego wschodu Górami Połua^owochińskimi, which are covered with evergreen subtropical forests. The central part is occupied by the Inner Mongolia Highlands, Qin Ling Mountains, The Sichuan Valley and the Junnań -sko-Kuejczouska Upland. Highlands of Inner Mongolia, medium erect 1000 m n.p.m., in the northern part it is desert-steppe. The Ałaszan desert and the Ordos desert plateau here are the southern part of the great areas of the Gobi. The only permanent river in this area is Huang-ho. The bottom of the Sichuan Basin is covered with red sandstones and clay formations, that is why the land is also called the Red Basin. In the south, it turns into the Junnańsko-Kuejczouska Upland, mainly made of limestone. Karst and volcanic phenomena are characteristic here. Południową część wyżyny stanowi obszar czynny sejsmicznie. Chiny leżą w strefie klimatu podzwrotnikowego i umiarkowanego (strongly continental in the mountainous and upland parts). In the south, through the provinces of Guangdong, Yunnan and the Guangxi Autonomous Region cross the Tropic of Cancer. We wschodniej i południowo-wschodniej części kraju występuje cyrkulacja monsunowa. A characteristic feature of the climate is greater temperature fluctuations in winter than in summer. The January average is between -30 ° C in the north in the Amur Bend, via -20 ° C in Harbin, -7° C in the Kashgar Basin, -15° C in Tibet, from 2 up to 10 ° C in the Sichuan Basin, from 13 up to 15 ° C in the China Plain, a na wyspie Hajnan dochodzi do 19°C. Średnia lipca waha się od 29°C na wyspie Hajnan, China Plain and Sichuan Basin up to 19 ° C in northern China. Highest temperatures (47,6°C) is recorded in the Turfańska Valley.