Bolivia

boliviaThe country is located in the central part of the South American continent.
Its western part is covered by the Andes mountain ranges and high plains (the so-called. Altiplano), where there is a tropical climate. The rest of the country is occupied by the vast Bolivian Plain with an equatorial climate.
The area of ​​Bolivia (1098,6 thousand. km2) it is almost four times larger than Poland, but I am alive
there are five times fewer people there than in our country. It is one of the Latin American countries, which has the highest percentage of indigenous people – more than half of its inhabitants are the Quechua and Aymara Indians. The rest are mestizos, whites and other ethnic groups. The official language is Spanish, but the Aymara and Quechua languages ​​are also in use. The country's constitutional capital is Sucre, while the seat of government and president – Peace.

Bolivia is an underdeveloped agricultural and industrial country. Agriculture, however, concentrated on the areas of mountain valleys. First of all, rice is grown here, wheat, barley, corn, sugar cane, cocoa, cotton, and also almost 300 types of potatoes – is said to be, that Bolivia is their homeland. The main farm animals are llamas, alpaki, sheep and cattle. In industry, on the other hand, the extraction of mineral resources is of the greatest importance, such as zinc, lead, tin, gold, silver, tungsten and crude oil and natural gas.

In the territory of today's Bolivia, the Inca civilization once developed. W 1538 r. these areas were incorporated by the Spaniards into the viceroyship of Peru, and more than two hundred years later they became part of the viceroyship of La Plata. The country's independence was proclaimed in 1825 r. New state – in honor of S.. Bolivar, leaders of the liberation struggles in Latin America – took the name Bolivia.

Since regaining independence, Bolivia has waged many more wars with neighboring countries, but there were also many internal upheavals. The last constitution – and they were together 13 – announced in 1967 r. and it is valid to this day.

Bolivia is landlocked. Jednak na granicy z Peru w Andach Środkowych znajduje się duże, navigable lake, which, just like the sea, has salt water. It is called Titicaca. It is the largest high-mountain lake on earth (3812 m n.p.m). Its depth reaches up to 304 m. Imagine it, that it is leaving the Titicaca 25 rivers! It also lies on top of it 41 islands. On the largest of them, Isla del Sol (The island of the sun) there are ruins of an Inca temple.

The shores of the lake are covered with forest reeds, which the Indians have been using for centuries to build huts and boats, and even floating islands.
South of Lake Titicaca are the ruins of a former city, called Tiahuanco.

To this day, there are, among others,: Acapana pyramid with a platform at the top, a courtyard called Calasasaya with the Gate of the Sun and several huge stone statues. The Tiahuanco culture preceded the Inca culture. It was characterized by monumental stone construction with multi-colored ceramics and the creation of various types of products from precious metals and bronze.. The town was built at almost heights 4. thousand. meters for a small group of people, because there were no natural resources at such high altitudes, that would make the life of a larger community possible.

At that time, it was an important cultural and religious center – miejsce kultu i pielgrzymek.
Imagine it, that the Incas already had their own way, to quickly convey important information to distant corners of the country. This good communication was of great importance in ruling the empire. The Incas built approx. 40 thousand. km of roads – zwane dziś szlakami Inków. Sometimes they were half-meter paths on steep slopes, but on a flat surface they even reached 6 meters. All roads led to Cusco – capital city. Hence, the ruler sent his messengers with important information. It was like today's relay race, which she could go through – on foot or on llamas – more than 300 km per day. Messengers shared information – in numerous locations along the route – oberżach. And how was the message delivered? Well, by "letter" (The Incas had no handwriting) there were woolen strings, called kipu, tied in a special way. The information for the sender was the color of the wool, its thickness, as well as the number of knots. Only this man could read the message, who knew the code. Today, the best-preserved sections of these Inca roads, we can find it in Bolivia.