Africa is one of the most mysterious and picturesque continents. Its face is characterized by uniform plateaus, endless areas with the same climate and vegetation. Rivers reach considerable lengths, and their uneven course is interrupted by numerous rapids and waterfalls. Huge areas are occupied by painterly swamps, sandy and rocky deserts or dense, virgin forests. The main mass of the African continent extends far south and extends into the vastness of the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. In the Strait of Gibraltar, it is close to Europe at sight (14 km), while in the so-called. The Suez Intermarium, until the Suez Canal was built, there was a natural land connection with Asia. Southeast of the Suez Isthmus stretches the mighty tectonic ditch of the Red Sea (length 1932 km and width to 306 km), separating Africa from the Arabian Peninsula. In the south, in the Bab Al-Mandeb Strait it narrows to 26,5 km. Most of Africa's territory lies in the tropics, which is reflected in the characteristic symmetry of the landscape zones – consequences of the intertropical forest belt, sawann i pustyń. Africa is poorly fragmented and has the least developed coastline of any continent. The biggest bay, Guinea, characteristically narrows the southern part of the continent. Apart from it, the larger ones include Suez and Aden in the east and Great and Little Sirte in the north. The interior of Africa is also poorly diverse. The area of the continent is divided into single large ones, flat valleys, separated by wide frets. The drainless valleys are particularly visible in the landscape: Lake Chad, The White Nile, Congo and the high Kalahari Basin. East Africa is tectonically shattered – There is a system of log blocks and large series of ditches (partially occupied by lakes), accompanied by volcanoes. The fracture zone of the earth's crust and the sinkhole of a great tectonic trench are long 6600 km from Syria, across the Jordan valley, Dead Sea, Aka-ba Bay and the Red Sea. Next, after crossing the Ethiopia area, it splits into an eastern branch, running through Lake Turkana east of Lake Victoria, and the western branch, running along the lakes: Alberta, Edward, Kiwu, Tanganyika and Niasa to the mouth of the Zambezi River. The bottom of the upland basin between the two branches of the ditch is occupied by Lake Victoria. Volcanoes occurring in this zone form the highest culminations of Africa. These include, among others. Kilimanjaro (5895 m n.p.m.), Kenya (5199 m n.p.m.) i Meru (4567 m n.p.m.).